Life in Lakes and Rivers (Collins New Naturalist Library, Book 15)
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Hedges NN 58 Ants NN 59 British Birds of Prey NN 60 British Tits NN 62 British Thrushes NN 63 Waders NN 65 Mammals in the British Isles NN 68 British Warblers NN 71 Heathlands NN 72 The New Forest NN 73 Ferns NN 74 The Hebrides NN 76 The Soil NN 77 Ladybirds NN 81 The New Naturalists NN 82 Plant Disease NN 85 Lichens NN 86 Loch Lomondside NN 88 The Broads NN 89 Moths NN 90 Nature Conservation NN 91 Lakeland NN 92 British Bats NN 93 Northumberland NN 95 Fungi NN 96 Bumblebees NN 98 Gower NN 99 Woodlands NN Garden Natural History NN The Isles of Scilly NN A History of Ornithology NN Wye Valley NN Dragonflies NN Grouse NN Southern England NN Islands NN Wildfowl NN Dartmoor NN The Medici family, in Renaissance Florence , made the first effort to collect art by private patronage, this way artists could be free for the first time from the money given by the Church and Kings.
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Robert Gillmor Robert Gillmor is an ornithologist , illustrator and editor, from England. He is a founder member of the Society of Wildlife Artists and has been its secretary and president, he has contributed to over books, in was a recipient of the RSPB Medal. When he was a student in the art department of Reading University, he illustrated his first book, A Study of Blackbirds. Gillmor taught art and craft at his old school for six years, Leighton Park in Reading before commencing a freelance career as a wildlife artist in Gillmor's output has been enormous and in a variety of forms, line drawing watercolour , lino-cuts and silk screen.
Since his first book in , his work has since appeared in over books. Moving from Reading to Cley next the Sea in Norfolk in proved an inspiring influence on his work, he resumed making lino-cuts. He has illustrated the covers of the annual reports of the Berkshire Ornithological Club since , he is a long-standing member of the Reading Guild of Artists.
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After founding the Society of Wildlife Artists with Eric Ennion in the early s, Robert served as its secretary and chairman for many years, he was elected president in and served for two five-year periods, he is a vice-president of the society. As well as working to promote current work, Robert has done much to promote work of past artists, including Charles Tunnicliffe , his grandfather, Professor Allen W. Seaby , who instilled in him a love of printmaking.
In , Gillmor completed lino-cuts for four sets of postage stamps for Royal Mail , with a further three sets to come in A retrospective of Gillmor's work was exhibited at Reading Museum from 23 October to 29 April Cutting Away: the linocuts of Robert Gillmor. ISBN Archived from the original on 1 November Reading: Two Rivers Press. Robert Gilmor's Norfolk Bird Sketches. Tunnicliffe, Charles. Sketches of Bird Life. A Study of Blackbirds. Denis Summers-Smith ; the Sparrows. Denis Summers-Smith; the Tree Sparrow. Tony Soper ; the Bird Table Book.
Birds New to Norfolk. Clare , John. Eric Robinson and Richard Fitter , ed. John Clare's Birds. Wood, J. Horace Alexander : to Birds and Binoculars. York: William Sessions Limited. Sample works on SWLA website. Gordon Manley Gordon Valentine Manley, FRGS was an English climatologist , described as "probably the best known, most prolific and most expert on the climate of Britain of his generation".
He assembled the Central England temperature series of monthly mean temperatures stretching back to , the longest standardised instrumental record available for anywhere in the world, it provides a benchmark for proxy records of climatic change for the period covered, is a notable example of scientific scholarship and perseverance. His two papers describing the work are available online. After obtaining degrees in engineering and geography at Victoria University of Manchester and Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge Manley joined the Meteorological Office in , but resigned the following year.
In the summer of he was a member of the Cambridge Expedition to East Greenland , which carried out much important research. That same year he began a lengthy career in academia when he became an assistant lecturer in geography at Birmingham University. His enthusiasm for his subject, his joy of learning and his wit made him an excellent teacher. In he was appointed a lecturer in geography at the University of Durham , he subsequently became a Senior Lecturer and founding Head of Department and Director of the University's Observatory.
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He became Curator of Durham University Observatory in , where he did much work on standardising the long temperature record that dated back to the mid-nineteenth century; the following year, he started collecting data at Moor House in the northern Pennines. He subsequently established a meteorological station close to the summit of Great Dun Fell at m, which recorded data at three-hour intervals from to ; this was the first series of mountain observations to be made in England.
From he carried out valuable research into the Helm Wind , a north-east wind that the local topography causes to blow down the south-west slope of Cross Fell in the Pennines with unusual strength.
Manley interpreted the phenomenon in hydrodynamic terms as a "standing wave" and "rotor", a model confirmed in by glider flights. From to he was a Flight Lieutenant in Cambridge University Air Squadron , but he continued his research and teaching of students from Cambridge and Bedford College, London ; the Royal Meteorological Society's magazine Weather, whose objective was to make developments in meteorology accessible to a wider public, started in during his presidency and benefited from his encouragement.
From to , Manley was Professor of Geography at Bedford College for Women in the University of London , he maintained his links with Cambridge, one result being the joint participation of undergraduates from both institutions in expeditions to Norway and Iceland. In Collins published his Climate and the British Scene in their New Naturalist series; this book accessible to the non-academic reader, was one of his greatest contributions to British climatology. His flair for writing entertainingly as well as informatively about the climate helped him to write a long series of articles for the Manchester Guardian from onwards about weather and climate events that were of topical interest.
In , at the age of 62, he took on the challenge of founding the new department of Environmental Studies at the new Lancaster University. In he retired and moved back to Cambridge. During this period, his research on Manchester rainfall and on Central England temperatures was published; the Central England temperature series continues to be updated each month by the UK Meteorological Office.
For the rest of his life he continued publishing. In all he wrote papers from onwards. At the time of his death he was assembling instrumental data for the north of England and Scotland back to the 18th century, he is buried in Coton churchyard. Note: The second and third items are those referred to in the footnote above and are available online.
They are large PDF files. Manley, Gordon. Manley, G. John Ramsbottom mycologist John Ramsbottom was a British mycologist. Ramsbottom was born in Manchester , he graduated from Emmanuel College and joined the staff of the British Museum of Natural History in From to , he served in Salonika , first as a civilian protozoologist as captain in the Royal Army Medical Corps , he was appointed a Member of the Order of the British Empire in the New Year Honours , "for valuable services rendered in connection with Military Operations in Salonika," and appointed an Officer of the Order.
From to , he was Keeper of Botany at the British Museum , he served as general secretary and twice as president of the British Mycological Society , was long editor of its Transactions. He was president of the Quekett Microscopical Club from to and was elected an Honorary Member in , he was president of the Linnean Society from to and was awarded their Linnean Medal in He was made an Honorary Member in Ramsbottom had a lively style both in his lectures and in his writing, which spanned both popular and technical publications, he could write: In reading the old accounts one finds a strange mixture of fact and fantasy.
Some are so fantastic that if they had not been accepted by other authors they would not find a place in a most detailed historical summary. There comes an observation of such merit that all seems set for real progress, but these facts when accepted, are misinterpreted as if in a superfluity of naughtiness, again there is confusion.
He was a pioneer of nature conservation in Scotland. He attended the University of Glasgow where he began a course in engineering before switching to zoology; as an undergraduate he studied sand dune snails on the island of Tiree in the Inner Hebrides , subsequently undertaking a doctoral study on the earthworms of the machair and further ecological research. Boyd was influenced by the writings of Frank Fraser Darling , he visited St Kilda and recognised the potential for research into its endemic fauna, including the Soay sheep, the St Kilda wren , the St Kilda field mouse.
He was involved in research on the grey seal on North Rona. In Boyd became the Scottish Director of the Nature Conservancy , he retired from the Conservancy in , but continued to be active in conservation until his death, in Edinburgh in He married Winifred Rome in Their son, Ian L. Boyd , is a zoologist. Books authored or coauthored by Boyd include: — St Kilda Summer.. Hutchinson: London. Collins: London. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, vol Edinburgh University Press.
A natural history..
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Birlinn Ltd: Edinburgh. Natural history Natural history is a domain of inquiry involving organisms including animals and plants in their environment.
A person who studies natural history is called natural historian. Natural history is not limited to it, it involves the systematic study of any category of natural organisms. So while it dates from studies in the ancient Greco-Roman world and the mediaeval Arabic world, through to European Renaissance naturalists working in near isolation, today's natural history is a cross discipline umbrella of many specialty sciences; the meaning of the English term "natural history" has narrowed progressively with time. In antiquity, "natural history" covered anything connected with nature, or which used materials drawn from nature, such as Pliny the Elder's encyclopedia of this title, published circa 77 to 79 AD, which covers astronomy , geography and their technology and superstition, as well as animals and plants.
Medieval European academics considered knowledge to have two main divisions: the humanities and divinity, with science studied through texts rather than observation or experiment. The study of nature revived in the Renaissance, became a third branch of academic knowledge, itself divided into descriptive natural history and natural philosophy, the analytical study of nature. In modern terms, natural philosophy corresponded to modern physics and chemistry, while natural history included the biological and geological sciences; the two were associated.
During the heyday of the gentleman scientists, many people contributed to both fields, early papers in both were read at professional science society meetings such as the Royal Society and the French Academy of Sciences — both founded during the seventeenth century. Natural history had been encouraged by practical motives, such as Linnaeus ' aspiration to improve the economic condition of Sweden ; the Industrial Revolution prompted the development of geology to help find useful mineral deposits.
Modern definitions of natural history come from a variety of fields and sources, many of the modern definitions emphasize a particular aspect of the field, creating a plurality of definitions with a number of common themes among them. For example, while natural history is most defined as a type of observation and a subject of study, it can be defined as a body of knowledge, as a craft or a practice, in which the emphasis is placed more on the observer than on the observed.
Definitions from biologists focus on the scientific study of individual organisms in their environment, as seen in this definition by Marston Bates : "Natural history is the study of animals and Plants — of organisms I like to think of natural history as the study of life at the level of the individual — of what plants and animals do, how they react to each other and their environment, how they are organized into larger groupings like populations and communities" and this more recent definition by D. Wilcove and T. Eisner: "The close observation of organisms—their origins, their evolution, their behavior, their relationships with other species"; this focus on organisms in their environment is echoed by H.
Greene and J.
Losos: "Natural history focuses on where organisms are and what they do in their environment, including interactions with other organisms. It encompasses changes in internal states insofar as they pertain to what organisms do". Some definitions go further, focusing on direct observation of organisms in their environment, both past and present, such as this one by G. Bartholomew: "A student of natural history, or a naturalist , studies the world by observing plants and animals directly; because organisms are functionally inseparable from the environment in which they live and because their structure and function cannot be adequately interpreted without knowing some of their evolutionary history, the study of natural history embraces the study of fossils as well as physiographic and other aspects of the physical environment".
A common thread in many definitions of natural history is the inclusion of a descriptive component, as seen in a recent definition by H. Greene: "Descriptive ecology and ethology ". Several authors have argued for a more expansive view of natural history, including S. Herman, who defines the field as "the scientific study of plants and animals in their natural environments. It is concerned with levels of organization from the individual organism to the ecosystem , stresses identification, life history, distribution and inter-relationships.
It and appropriately includes an esthetic component", T. Fleischner, who defines the field more broadly, as "A practice of intentional, focused attentiveness and receptivity to the more-than-human world, guided by honesty and accuracy"; these definitions explicitly include the arts in the field of natural history, are aligned with the broad definition outlined by B.