Generating a Redshift in the Lab

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The plasma induced redshift, line broadening are all as predicted by New Tired Light. If this relatively easy and inexpensive test is carried out then it could settle the mat- ter once and for all. Regardless of this, now that it has been shown in the laboratory that plasma induce intrin- sic redshifts, will this be incorporated into the Big Bang theory?

Redshift with Rockset: High performance queries for operational analytics

The Universe is a big place filled with plasma and these laboratory results show that this plasma induces redshifts. Experience tells me that mainstream sci- ence will ignore good science. Introduction pears first after 50 ns whilst lines with a longer wavelength appear approximately 30 ns after this. In fact the lines are redshifted the free electrons density reduces.


The The shift in the ing universe - since any test of a scientific theory must include wavelength of the The Experimental Procedure an electron density of 3x m A nm pulsed-laser with pulse duration of 10 ns and en- 4. Possible Explanations Given ergy 1 J is focussed onto a Hg0. The spectra are observed at a distance of 0. Initially, the spectra consist of a contin- states is greater than that in the lower energy states.

Thus uum produced by bremsstrahlung as the interacting free elec- higher energy electrons recombine first giving out higher fre- trons in the plasma lose their energy by the emission of photons quency photons followed by the lower frequency, longer of electro-magnetic radiation.

This makes the plasma lose energy wavelengths appearing later.

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That is, the the bremsstrahlung dies away and becomes invariant and the ions in the plasma set up an electric field which causes the spectral lines due to recombination become dominant. When recombination takes place, a range of wavelengths is emitted and hence the lines 3. The Experimental Results broaden. The line of the Hg atom However, overall, plasma is electrically neutral.

None detected. On this basis red shift becomes a distance In cosmology, the mainstream idea is that cosmological red- indicator and the distance - red shift relation becomes: photons of shift is produced by expansion effects. However, several theories light from sources twice as far away will travel twice as far have already been put forward explaining redshift as being an through the plasma, make twice as many collisions and thus un- interaction between photons and the plasma in Intergalactic dergo twice the red shift.

Conservation of linear momentum will Space IG Space.

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Could it be that the experiment carried out by ensure the linear propagation of light. Chen et al is a lab test of these theories? If so, these results take on a particular importance in cosmology thinking. New Tired Light Revisited raction of low-energy x-rays with matter [8, 9, 10]. Electrons in the plasma can perform two semi-empirical atomic scattering factors depending, amongst SHM and any electron that can perform SHM can absorb and other things, on the number of electrons in the atom.

For 10 keV reemit photons of light. The means that the photon was absorbed and an identical photon plasma in these experiments has a free electron density of ap- reemitted [11]. In a photon- driving frequency far above resonance. In consequence, reson- electron interaction there are only two possible outcomes.

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Either ance absorption will not take place and the photon will always be the photon is absorbed and not re-emitted resonance absorption, re-emitted. This must be applied twice for absorption and reemission. The photon frequency of the transmis- need. For large distances in IG Space, the collision cross-section in- Light of wavelength 5x m gives rise to TR of wavelength creases as the photons are redshifted and this leads to an expo- 0.

This query primarily tests the throughput with which each framework can read and write table data. The best performers are Impala mem and Shark mem which see excellent throughput by avoiding disk. For on-disk data, Redshift sees the best throughput for two reasons. First, the Redshift clusters have more disks and second, Redshift uses columnar compression which allows it to bypass a field which is not used in the query.

Both Shark and Impala outperform Hive by X due in part to more efficient task launching and scheduling. As the result sets get larger, Impala becomes bottlenecked on the ability to persist the results back to disk. Nonetheless, since the last iteration of the benchmark Impala has improved its performance in materializing these large result-sets to disk.

This is in part due to the container pre-warming and reuse, which cuts down on JVM initialization time. This query applies string parsing to each input tuple then performs a high-cardinality aggregation. Redshift's columnar storage provides greater benefit than in Query 1 since several columns of the UserVistits table are un-used.

Since Impala is reading from the OS buffer cache, it must read and decompress entire rows. Unlike Shark, however, Impala evaluates this expression using very efficient compiled code.

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These two factors offset each other and Impala and Shark achieve roughly the same raw throughput for in memory tables. For larger result sets, Impala again sees high latency due to the speed of materializing output tables. When the join is small 3A , all frameworks spend the majority of time scanning the large table and performing date comparisons.

For larger joins, the initial scan becomes a less significant fraction of overall response time. For this reason the gap between in-memory and on-disk representations diminishes in query 3C.

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All frameworks perform partitioned joins to answer this query. CPU due to hashing join keys and network IO due to shuffling data are the primary bottlenecks. Redshift has an edge in this case because the overall network capacity in the cluster is higher. This query calls an external Python function which extracts and aggregates URL information from a web crawl dataset.

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It then aggregates a total count per URL. Impala and Redshift do not currently support calling this type of UDF, so they are omitted from the result set. The performance advantage of Shark disk over Hive in this query is less pronounced than in 1, 2, or 3 because the shuffle and reduce phases take a relatively small amount of time this query only shuffles a small amount of data so the task-launch overhead of Hive is less pronounced.

Also note that when the data is in-memory, Shark is bottlenecked by the speed at which it can pipe tuples to the Python process rather than memory throughput. This makes the speedup relative to disk around 5X rather than 10X or more seen in other queries. These numbers compare performance on SQL workloads, but raw performance is just one of many important attributes of an analytic framework. The reason why systems like Hive, Impala, and Shark are used is because they offer a high degree of flexibility, both in terms of the underlying format of the data and the type of computation employed.

Below we summarize a few qualitative points of comparison:. We would like to include the columnar storage formats for Hadoop-based systems, such as Parquet and RC file.


Finally, we plan to re-evaluate on a regular basis as new versions are released. We wanted to begin with a relatively well known workload, so we chose a variant of the Pavlo benchmark. This benchmark is heavily influenced by relational queries SQL and leaves out other types of analytics, such as machine learning and graph processing.

In future iterations of this benchmark, we may extend the workload to address these gaps. This benchmark is not an attempt to exactly recreate the environment of the Pavlo at al. The most notable differences are as follows:. We've started with a small number of EC2-hosted query engines because our primary goal is producing verifiable results. Over time we'd like to grow the set of frameworks.

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We've tried to cover a set of fundamental operations in this benchmark, but of course, it may not correspond to your own workload. Redshift is designed to be used with a variety of data sources and data analytics tools and is compatible with several existing SQL-based clients. Every Redshift data warehouse is fully managed, so administrative tasks like configuration, maintenance backups, and security are completely automated.

Redshift is designed for big data and can scale easily thanks to its modular node design. Thanks to its multi-layered structure, Redshift lets multiple queries to be processed simultaneously, reducing wait times. Additionally, Redshift clusters can be divided further into slices, which helps provide more granular insights into data sets. One of the most effective uses for Redshift databases is in organizations that have a high demand for analytics and access to data.